Wood Ash as Sustainable Alternative Raw Material for the Production of Concrete: A Review

Ece Ezgi Teker Ercan, Lale Andreas, Andrzej Cwirzen, Karin Habermehl-Cwirzen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Different ecological binders have been used to minimize the negative effects of cement production and use on the environment. Wood ash is one of these alternative binders, and there has been increasing research related to this topic recently. The wood ash utilized in the literature primarily originates from power plants and local bakeries, and predominantly wood fly ash is used. This review paper examines the use of wood ash as an ecological binder in two different applications: as a cement replacement and as an alkali-activated material. Studies have shown that while increased wood ash content in concrete and mortars can have negative effects on strength and durability, it is still a promising and developable material. Depending on the chemical composition of the wood ash, the strength and durability properties of concrete might be slightly improved by utilizing wood ash as a replacement for cement, with an optimal replacement level of 10–20%. However, there is a need for more research regarding the effects of wood ash on the durability of cement-based materials and its use in alkali-activated materials. Overall, this review provides a comprehensive overview of the properties of wood ash and its potential applications in conventional concrete and mortars, as well as in alkali-activated materials.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Article number2557
Number of pages22
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 23 Mar 2023


  • wood ash
  • wood fly ash
  • forest waste
  • cement replacement
  • geopolymer
  • alkali-activated
  • concrete
  • mortar
  • supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs)
  • ecological

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