Projects per year
Methods: Candidate hypotheses were identified based on a literature review and a series of research dissemination events. Each hypothesis was described and critically evaluated in relation to the Bradford-Hill criteria for causation in observational epidemiology. A synthesis of the more convincing hypotheses was then attempted using a broadly 'dialectical' approach.
Results: Seventeen hypotheses were identified including: artefactual explanations (deprivation, migration); 'downstream explanations' (genetics, health behaviours, individual values); 'midstream' explanations (substance misuse; culture of boundlessness and alienation; family, gender relations and parenting differences; lower social capital; sectarianism; culture of limited social mobility; health service supply or demand; deprivation concentration); and 'upstream' explanations (climate, inequalities, de-industrialization, political attack). There is little evidence available to determine why mortality rates diverged between Scotland and other European countries between 1950 and 1980, but the most plausible explanations at present link to particular industrial, employment, housing and cultural patterns. From 1980 onwards, the higher mortality has been driven by unfavourable health behaviours, and it seems quite likely that these are linked to an intensifying climate of conflict, injustice and disempowerment. This is best explained by developing a synthesis beginning from the political attack hypothesis, which suggests that the neoliberal policies implemented from 1979 onwards across the UK disproportionately affected the Scottish population.
Conclusions: The reasons for the high Scottish mortality between 1950 and 1980 are unclear, but may be linked to particular industrial, employment, housing and cultural patterns. From 1980 onwards, the higher mortality is most likely to be accounted for by a synthesis which begins from the changed political context of the 1980s, and the consequent hopelessness and community disruption experienced. This may have relevance to faltering health improvement in other countries, such as the USA. (C) 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Scottish effect
- Glasgow effect
FingerprintDive into the research topics of 'Why the Scots die younger: Synthesizing the evidence'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.
- 2 Active
The University of the West of Scotland-Oxfam Partnership - 'for a more equitable and sustainable Scotland'.
Collins, C., Stuart, F., Livingstone, J. & Pautz, H.
4/07/11 → …
Collins, C., McCartney, G., Walsh, D., Batty, G. D., Levitt, I. & Taulbut, M.
16/06/08 → …
The Politics of Health in Scotland, 1979-1992: 'Personal responsibility’ and the ‘false dawn’ of social determinationCollins, C. & Levitt, I., 13 Sep 2017, p. 91.
Research output: Contribution to conference › Paper › peer-review
Working-class discourses of politics, policy and health: 'I don’t smoke; I don’t drink. The only thing wrong with me is my health’Mackenzie, M., Collins, C., Connolly, J., McCartney, G. & Doyle, M., 1 Apr 2017, In: Policy and Politics. 45, 2, p. 231-249 19 p., 1.
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review16 Citations (Scopus)
Excess mortality and urban change: Investigating similarities and differences in the extent of urban change in Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester and their surrounding regions from 1945, and the extent to which this might be part of the excess mortality explanationTaulbut, M., McCartney, G., Walsh, D. & Collins, C., 15 May 2016, United Kingdom: NHS Health Scotland. 107 p.
Research output: Book/Report › Commissioned reportOpen AccessFile