Simultaneous multilayer formation of the polymer solar cell stack using roll-to-roll double slot-die coating from water

Thue T. Larsen-Olsen, Birgitta Andreasen, Thomas R. Andersen, Arvid P. L. Bottiger, Eva Bundgaard, Kion Norrman, Jens W. Andreasen, Mikkel Jorgensen, Frederik C. Krebs

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99 Citations (Scopus)


Double slot-die coating using aqueous inks was employed for the simultaneous coating of the active layer and the hole transport layer (HTL) in fully roll-to-roll (R2R) processed polymer solar cells. The double layer film was coated directly onto an electron transport layer (ETL) comprising doped zinc oxide that was processed by single slot-die coating from water. The active layer comprised poly-3-hexylthiophene:Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) as a dispersion of nanoparticles with a radius of 46 nm in water characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The HTL was a dispersion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) in water. The films were analyzed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) as chemical probe and X-ray reflectometry as physical probe, confirming the identity of the layered structure. The devices were completed with a back electrode of either Cu tape or evaporated Ag. Under standard solar spectrum irradiation (AM1.5G), current–voltage characterization (J–V) yielded an open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.24 V, 0.5 mA cm−2, 25%, and 0.03%, respectively, for the best double slot-die coated cell. A single slot-die coated cell using the same aqueous inks and device architecture yielded a Voc, Jsc, FF, and PCE of 0.45 V, 1.95 mA cm−2, 33.1%, and 0.29%, respectively.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)22-27
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes


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