Review of offshore salmon farming observation methods

Jóhannus Kristmundsson, Øystein Patursson, John Potter, Qin Xin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This review discusses different methods of observing offshore fish farming structures and their inhabitants to support in understanding the mechanisms that happen under the waterline, and ultimately in decision making. Good decision making is crucial to ensure good fish welfare, and can improve profitability in fish husbandry. This review specifically focuses on the data collection aspect of this process, rather than the analysis of the collected data. Offshore salmon farming operations can be observed using camera-based, tag-based, or acoustic-based methods. Each method has its own advantages and limitations in terms of what it is able to observe, range, cost, and complexity. Camera-based observations, including acoustic cameras offer a wide range of capabilities, but are limited by range and manual data extraction. Tag-based systems provide unique information, but are invasive and expensive to deploy. Acoustic sonar observations can observe comparatively fewer parameters, but function at longer ranges. Multibeam sonar can observe more, but are more complex and costly. The most appropriate method depends on the specific goals and resources of the operation.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages13
JournalAquacultural Engineering
Publication statusSubmitted - 24 Dec 2022


  • salmon
  • observations
  • Welfare
  • Echo
  • Camera
  • Tag


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