Nut Consumption and Renal Function Among Women With a History of Gestational Diabetes

Aparna S. Ajjarapu, Stefanie N. Hinkle, Jing Wu, Mengying Li, Shristi Rawal, Ellen C. Francis, Liwei Chen, Georgia Pitsava, Anne A. Bjerregaard, Louise G. Grunnet, Allan Vaag, Yeyi Zhu, Ronald C.w. Ma, Peter Damm, James L. Mills, Sjurdur F. Olsen, Cuilin Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Nut intake has been associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk, but few studies have examined its association with renal function. We examined associations between nut intake and renal function among women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a population with an increased risk for renal dysfunction.
Design and Methods
This study included 607 women with a history of GDM who participated in the Diabetes & Women's Health Study (2012-2014) follow-up clinical examination in Denmark. At the clinic, biospecimens were collected, and habitual intake of nuts (9 types) in the past year was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. A total of 330 women free of major chronic diseases were included in the analysis. Total nut intake was classified as none (≤1 serving/month), monthly (2-3 servings/month), weekly (1-6 servings/week), and daily (≥1 serving/day). One serving was defined as 28 g. Renal function markers included estimated glomerular rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), calculated based on plasma creatinine (mg/dL), and urinary albumin (mg/L), and creatinine (mg/dL) measurements, respectively. We estimated percent differences with 95% confidence intervals for each outcome by nut intake, adjusted for current body mass index, age, physical activity, energy intake, alcohol consumption, and vegetables intake.
We observed a nonlinear association between total nut intake and UACR with lowest UACR values among women with weekly intake. Compared to women with weekly intake (n = 222), the adjusted UACR values were higher by 86% [95% confidence interval: 15%, 202%], 24% [−1%, 54%], and 117% [22%, 288%] among women with no (n = 13), monthly (n = 86), and daily (n = 9) intake, respectively. Compared to weekly consumers, daily nut consumers also had 9% [0%, 19%] significantly higher eGFR values, but eGFR values were similar among women with no and monthly intake.
Moderate nut consumption may be beneficial to kidney health among women with prior GDM.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)415-422
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2020


  • diet
  • nut consumption
  • health
  • female
  • GDM
  • Gestational diabetes


Dive into the research topics of 'Nut Consumption and Renal Function Among Women With a History of Gestational Diabetes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this