Noise comparison of triple frequency GNSS carrier phase, doppler and pseudorange observables

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10 Citations (Scopus)


The relative noise of data from all GNSS is investigated, considering the various satellite constellations, the different frequencies and also the historical satellite systems such as the various GPS blocks. The noise of the Range Residual and Ionospheric Residual geometry free approaches are scrutinized, illustrating the expected measurement precisions from the different types of satellites, and their comparisons. The noise characteristics are also studied by varying the elevation mask angle, as these techniques measure the noise in the observables, which can increase by lowering the elevation mask angle. The results illustrate that the newer generations of satellites do have less noisy data, and that GLONASS and SBAS in particular have the noisiest observables, and Galileo and BeiDou have the least noisy. The techniques presented in this paper could provide a real time data quality check in order to choose which satellites to use for the positioning solution.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)328-344
Number of pages17
JournalMeasurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • GNSS
  • Carrier Phase
  • Pseudorange
  • Doppler
  • Observable Noise


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