Monitoring temperature and hydration by mortar sensors made of nanomodified Portland cement

Thanyarat Buasiri, Ankit Kothari, Karin Habermehl-Cwirzen, Lukasz Krzeminski, Andrzej Cwirzen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Mortar beams incorporating carbon nanofibers (CNFs), which were synthesized in situ on Portland cement particles, were used to produce nanomodified Portland cement sensors (SmartCem sensors). SmartCem sensors exhibited an electrical response comparable to a thermistor with a temperature coefficient of resistivity of − 0.0152/ °C. The highest temperature sensing was obtained for the SmartCem sensor, which contained ~ 0.271 wt.% of CNFs. The calculated temperature sensitivity was approximately 11.76% higher in comparison with the mortar beam containing only unmodified Portland cement. SmartCem sensors were used to monitor the cement hydration in large-scale self-compacting concrete beams. The measurements were conducted after casting for 7 days. Additionally, commercially available thermocouple and humidity sensors were used as references. The results showed that changes in electrical resistivity measured by the SmartCem sensor were well aligned with the ongoing hydration processes.
Original languageEnglish
JournalMaterials and Structures
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • CNFs
  • Carbon nanofibers
  • Cement-based sensor
  • Hydration monitoring
  • Hydration temperature
  • Nanomodified Portland cement
  • Temperature sensing
  • Temperature sensitivity
  • Temperature sensor


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