Effect of Baltic Seawater and Binder Type on Frost Durability of Concrete

A. Cwirzen, P. Sztermen, K. Habermehl-Cwirzen

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19 Citations (Scopus)


The effects of Baltic seawater on frost durability of PC concretes using sulfate resistant portland cement and combination of rapid hardening portland cement with silica fume were studied. The freeze-thaw cycles were performed on specimens exposed to the Baltic seawater, 3% sodium chloride solution and deionized water. The freeze-thaw cycles appeared to cause the most extensive internal damage in specimens based on sulfate resistant cement (SR) and exposed to seawater. The most extensive surface scaling was observed in the case of concretes containing silica fume and exposed to deicing salts. Based on the thermo gravimetric and X-ray diffraction analyses it was concluded that extensive internal damage of concrete based on SR was caused by changes of the microstructure due to secondary formation of ettringite, carbonation, and formation of calcite. The results showed also that low C3A
content of the SR did not fully mitigate formation of secondary ettringite during freeze-thaw cycles. A combination of rapid hardening portland cement and silica fume appeared to form more frost resistant concrete when exposed to seawater.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Materials in Civil Engineering
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2014


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