Eco-UHPC as Repair Material—Bond Strength, Interfacial Transition Zone and Effects of Formwork Type

Ankit Kothari, Magdalena Rajczakowska, Thanyarat Buasiri, Karin Habermehl-Cwirzen, Andrzej Cwirzen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


A reduced carbon footprint and longer service life of structures are major aspects of circular economy with respect to civil engineering. The aim of the research was to evaluate the interfacial bond properties between a deteriorated normal strength concrete structure and a thin overlay made of Eco-UHPC containing 50 wt% of limestone filler. Two types of formwork were used: untreated rough plywood and surface treated shuttering plywood. The normal strength concrete elements were surface scaled using water jets to obtain some degradation prior to casting of the UHPC overlay. Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), bond test (pull-off test), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) were used for analysis. Elements repaired with the Eco-UHPC showed significantly improved mechanical properties compared to the non-deteriorated NSC sample which was used as a reference. The bond strength varied between 2 and 2.7 MPa regardless of the used formwork. The interfacial transition zone was very narrow with only slightly increased porosity. The untreated plywood, having a rough and water-absorbing surface, created a surface friction-based restraint which limited microcracking due to autogenous shrinkage. Shuttering plywood with a smooth surface enabled the development of higher tensile stress on the UHPC surface, which led to a more intensive autogenous shrinkage cracking. None of the formed microcracks penetrated through the entire thickness of the overlay and some were partly self-healed when a simple water treatment was applied. The project results showed that application of UHPC as repair material for concrete structures could elongate the lifespan and thus enhance the sustainability.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5778
Number of pages19
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 17 Dec 2020


  • Eco-UHPC
  • NSC (normal strength concrete)
  • UPV
  • bond test (pull-off)
  • ITZ
  • formwork
  • self-healing


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