Activation of a Raw Clay by Mechanochemical Process: Effects of Various Parameters on the Process Efficiency and Cementitious Properties

Ilda Tole, Karin Habermehl-Cwirzen, Magdalena Rajczakowska, Andrzej Cwirzen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Abstract
The efficiency of the mechanochemical activation (MCA) is influenced by various process parameters as well as by the properties of the treated material. The main objective of this research was to optimize the MCA process, gaining enhancement of the chemical reactivity of a Swedish raw clay, which is going to be used as an alkali-activated cementitious binder. The effects of the amount of water, the filling ratio, the rotation speed, and the grinding duration on the amorphization degree were evaluated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Generally, wet and dry processes showed an extensive amorphization of both kaolinite and muscovite minerals present in the studied clay. On the contrary, quartz was amorphized mainly by the wet grinding process. The efficiency of both dry and wet grinding processes was enhanced by the increased number of grinding media versus the amount of the activated material. However, longer processing times caused significant agglomeration while a higher rotational speed enhanced the amorphization. Preliminary tests have shown that alkali activation of the processed clays produced hardened samples. Furthermore, the increased amorphization corresponded to the increased compressive strength values.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1860
JournalMaterials
Volume11
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29 Sept 2018

Keywords

  • clay minerals
  • dry grinding
  • fine grinding
  • mechanochemical activation
  • mechanochemistry
  • wet grinding

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